"France, Poland and the Relaunch of EU Defence Cooperation", in Barbara Jankowski and Amélie Zima (eds), France and Poland Facing the Evolution of the Security Environment, Etude de l'IRSEM N° 59, 2018, pp.77–84.
This article looks back at the causes of the revival of European defence in the 2010s. Several cyclical factors can explain this recovery: financial reasons, such as the crisis encouraging economies of scale, security reasons such as terrorism and political reasons, such as the election of Trump and Brexit. While the Member States have largely supported this revival, the author nevertheless points out that the EU is facing a geostrategic dilemma: the need to face security issues in both the South and East. However, from the example of EUFOR Bangui, he shows that this dilemma can be overcome by transactions between Member States.